The processes of rural transformation can have profound impacts on diets and physical activity patterns and can increase availability of calorie-dense and processed foods options. At the same time, the introduction of technological innovation may modify the intensity of rural livelihood activities. When designing research, policies, and interventions that address the challenges to achieve sustainable diets, there is a need to recognise the holistic nature of shifting lifestyles and the interconnected obesity and environmental crises from a food systems perspective. This chapter showcases a novel approach that integrates data from wearable activity-trackers in a mixed-method study design to further our understanding on the interplay between changing diets and physical activity among adolescents in rural Telangana (India). We also include reflections on the ethical and practical considerations of engaging with adolescents in research. The aim of the chapter is to demonstrate the advantages of engaging with a holistic concept of sustainable lifestyles to address the health challenges adolescents face in rapidly transforming societies.
Using qualitative case study, and unique firm-level survey data in Ghana and Tanzania collected between 2013 and 2015, this chapter analyses the nature and the sources of innovation in both formal and informal sectors. Also, the chapter explores the learning processes underlying innovations as well the various institutional constraints underlying these innovations in Ghana and Tanzania. Our analyses reveal that innovation occurs just about anywhere in Ghana and Tanzania, and innovation is widespread across all sectors, including formal and informal sectors. Our results also show that firms engage in multiple incremental innovations at the same time, enabling firms to gain complementary effects. Knowledge spillover, imitation and adaptation were identified as the main mechanisms through which knowledge is transferred for innovation activities in Ghana and Tanzania.